Bypassing Justice:
Pregnant Minors and Parental Involvement Laws


The Law on the Books

Since Bellotti v. Baird in 1979, when the U.S. Supreme Court first upheld a state law that required parental consent for minors seeking abortions, the number of states limiting young women’s access to abortion has grown steadily.

As of April 2013, 39 states have consent laws (requiring the parent to give permission for an abortion) or notice laws (requiring physicians to notify the parent that the minor has elected abortion), and 37 laws allow a minor to seek a judicial bypass in lieu of parental involvement. Only five states and the District of Columbia have no law and five states’ laws are enjoined or unenforced at this time.

The map below will allow you to download each state’s parental involvement statute, as well as court rules, representative case law, and helpful state websites (where available). States marked with an blue info icon link directly to that state’s court website, which will have model forms and instructions available for download.

Please note: Nothing on this website constitutes legal advice and the documents that can be downloaded from the map only reflect state law as of April 2013. In addition, the Guttmacher Institute publishes a helpful chart summarizing the major characteristics of each state’s law that is updated quarterly.

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